Referencing examples

The Harvard system has two elements: the in-text citation within your report, and the reference which appears at the end of your work, in your bibliography.

  • The in-text citation is a shortened version of the reference, with enough information for the reader to find the full reference in your bibliography.
  • The reference is a full description of what you have been reading, watching, listening to etc, and is included in your bibliography.
Source In-text citation Bibliography
Books, pamphlets
Book

(1 author)

(Spiekermann, 2003, p. 44) Spiekermann, E. (2003) Stop stealing sheep and find out how type works. 2nd edn. Berkeley: Adobe Press.
Book

(2 or 3 authors)

(Rifkin, Ackerman, and Folkenberg, 2006, p. 76) Rifkin, B., Ackerman, M. and Folkenberg, J. (2006) Human anatomy: depicting the body from Renaissance to today. London: Thames and Hudson.
Book

(4 or more authors)

(Ainsworth et al., 2010, p. 63) Ainsworth, M. et al. (2010) Man, myth and sensual pleasure: Jan Gossaert’s Renaissance. New Haven: Yale University Press.

 

Book with an editor (Buckley, 2010, pp. 89-90) Buckley, P. (ed.) (2010) Penguin 75. New York: Penguin.
Chapter in an edited book (Telfer, 2006, p. 15) Telfer, E. (2006) ‘Food as art’, in Neill, A. (ed.) Arguing about art. 3rd edn. Abingdon: Routledge. pp. 11-29.
Ebook (New, 2005, p. 46) New, J. (2005) Drawing from life: the journal as art. Available at: http://lib.myilibrary.com/Browse/Open.asp?ID=106596 (Downloaded: 19 October 2009).
Exhibition catalogue / pamphlet (Wallis, 1997) Wallis, S. (1997) Within these walls. Exhibition held at Kettle’s Yard, Cambridge, 2 August to 21 September 1997 [Exhibition catalogue].
Journals, magazines, newspapers
Printed journal/

magazine article

(Smith, 2008, p. 63) Smith, B. (2008) ‘Feeling good: eco fashion is looking fine’, Selvedge, 21, pp. 62-65.
Online journal/ magazine article (Steyn, 2007, p. 192) Steyn, J. (2007) ‘The cultural politics of friendship’, Third Text, 21(2), pp. 189-198. Available at: http://www.informaworld.com/10.1080/09528820701273489 (Accessed: 27 March 2008).
Online newspaper articles (Brooker, 2009) Brooker, C. (2009) ‘Charlie Brooker: why I love video games’, The Guardian. Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2009/dec/11/charlie-brooker-i-love-videogames (Accessed: 05 June 2017).
Magazine advertisement (Vogue, 2017) Vogue (2017) ‘Alexander McQueen’ [Advertisement]. June, p. 62.
Internet, social media and apps
Website / pdf / online photograph (Kentridge, 2007) Kentridge, W. (2007) Fragile identities. Available at: http://www.brighton.ac.uk/kentridge/exhibition.html (Accessed: 17 Dec 2007).
Pdfs See websites (above)
Maps (Digimap online) (Smith, 2017) Smith, John, “Norwich” [PDF map], Scale 1:500, GB Overview [ geospatial data], Updated: Jun 2017, Ordnance Survey (GB), Using: EDINA Digimap Ordnance Survey Service, <http://digimap.edina.ac.uk/>, Created: June 2017.
YouTube (FF Channel, 2017) FF Channel (2017) Gucci: cruise 2018. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=15sgCqxvrwI (Accessed: 05 June 2017).
Podcast (Valenti, 2017) Valenti, J. (2017) Making art in the time of Trump: what would a feminist do? [Podcast]. 22 March. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/audio/2017/mar/22/art-political-activism-trump-feminism-podcast (Accessed: 21 June 2017).
Facebook (The National Gallery, 2017) The National Gallery (2017) Otto Franz Scholderer [Facebook] 14 June. Available at: https://www.facebook.com/thenationalgallery/ (Accessed: 21 June 2017).
Twitter (Norfolk Museums, 2017) Norfolk Museums (2017) [Twitter] 21 June. Available at: https://twitter.com/NorfolkMuseums (Accessed: 21 June 2017).
Instagram image (Norwich Castle Art, 2017) Norwich Castle Art (2017) Development image by Carl Rowe. Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/BVkMWUjFV3i/ (Accessed: 21 June 2017).
Blog (Lau, 2017) Lau, S. (2017) We choose to go to the moon’, Style Bubble, 26 May. Available at: http://stylebubble.co.uk/style_bubble/2017/05/we-choose-to-go-to-the-moon.html (Accessed: 05 June 2017).
App (FitBit, 2017) FitBit (2017) Fitbit [Mobile app]. Available at: Google Play Store. [Downloaded: 21 June 2017).
Film, TV, games and music
Film (DVD) (Deadpool, 2016) Deadpool (2016) Directed by Tim Miller [DVD]. Los Angeles, Calif.: 20th Century Fox.
Film (Online)

e.g. Netflix or Kanopy

(Lady Bird, 2017) Lady Bird (2017) Directed by Greta Gerwig [Film]. Available at: https://nuauk.kanopy.com/video/lady-bird-0 (Accessed: 01 May 2019).
Directors’ commentary (Mendes, 1999) Mendes, S. (1999) ‘Director’s commentary’, American Beauty. Directed by S. Mendes [DVD]. Los Angeles, Calif.: Dreamworks.
TV programme (The shock of the new, 2012) The shock of the new (2012) BBC Four Television, 17 September.
TV programme

viewed online (e.g. via BoB)

(‘Living in the city’, 2016) Living in the city’ (2016) Grand Designs, Series 11, episode 9, Channel 4 Television, 23 August. Available at: https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/prog/0A58A922?bcast=122350515 (Accessed: 05 June 2017).
TV advertisement (Samsung, 2017) Samsung (2017) Ostrich [Advertisement on ITV1 Television]. 31 March.
Video Game (Giant Squid Studios, 2017) Giant Squid Studios (2017) Abzu [Video game]. 505 Games.
Song lyrics (Winehouse, 2007) Winehouse, A. (2007) Rehab. London: Universal Island Records.
Visual sources
Exhibition (Tracey Emin and William Blake in focus, 2017) Tracey Emin and William Blake in focus (2017) [Exhibition]. Tate Liverpool. 16 September 2016 – 3 September 2017.
Sculpture (Hepworth, 1956) Hepworth, B. (1956) Forms in movement [Sculpture]. Aratoi, Wairarapa Museum of Art and History.
Painting / drawing (Tyson, 1995) Tyson, N. (1995) Swimmer [Oil on canvas]. Tate, London.
Graffiti (Pedro Lujan and his dog, 2012) Pedro Lujan and his dog (2012) [Graffiti] Factory building, Pedro de Luján, Barracas, Buenos Aires. (Viewed: 29 November 2012)
Photograph (from book, print or slide) (Fullerton-Batten, 2008) Fullerton-Batten, J. (2008) Hallway [Photograph]. London: Thames and Hudson.
Photograph (online) (Lange, 1936) Lange, D. (1936) Migrant mother. Available at: https://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/128_migm.html (Accessed: 21 June 2017).
Flickr (Pogue, 2015) Pogue, S. (2015) _DSC9159. Available at: https://www.flickr.com/photos/sandypogue/23557050746/in/dateposted/ (Accessed: 05 June 2017).
Packaging (Nestlé, 2017) Nestlé (2017) Rowntree’s fruit pastilles [Wrapper].
Logo (Starbucks, 2017) Starbucks (2017) Starbucks [Logo]. Available at: https://www.starbucks.com (Accessed: 21 June 2017).
Public / Personal Communication
Lecture (Westwood, 2018) Westwood, V. (2018) Music and fashion [Lecture to BA Fashion Year 2], BA2a: Experimentation and application. Norwich University of the Arts. 10 November.
Conversation (Obama, 2015) Obama, B. (2015) Conversation with John Smith, 10 April.

(NB – in the example above, you are John Smith, and B. Obama is the person you had a conversation with).

Email (Obama, 2016) Obama, B. (2016) Email to Lauren Rowley, 23 May.

(NB – in the example above, you are L. Rowley, and B. Obama is the person who emailed you).