What is a bibliography?
A bibliography is a list at the end of your work that gives the details of all the sources you have used. This is to enable anyone who reads your work to be able to go to the original source for themselves if they want to.
How should I order my bibliography?
Your bibliography should be in alphabetical order by the first author’s surname. You do not need to break the list up into different types of sources, your bibliography should be one long list.
How do I know which details to include in my bibliography?
NUA uses ‘Cite them right’ (Pears and Shields, 2019) to determine which bits of information you need to include, but all Harvard referencing follows a similar pattern:
Author (Year) Title of the work. [type of thing if needed].Any further details needed to get to the specific edition or issue. (date accessed online if needed).
We have put together a comprehensive table of media types to help you construct your references quickly and easily. Here are a few of the more common ones:
Author (Year of publication) Title. Edition. (for 2nd edition onwards) Place of publication: Publisher.
Author (Year of publication) ‘Title of article’, Title of Journal, Volume number (issue number), page numbers.
Author (Year) Title. Available at: URL. (Accessed: date).
Title of film (Year of distribution) Directed by [Film]. Place of distribution: Distribution company.
Painting / drawing
Artist (Year) Title of the work. [Medium] Institution or collection that houses the work, city where the work is located.
Artist (Year) Title of the work [Medium] Available at: URL (Accessed: date).
Company / individual developer (Release year) Title of game [Video game]. Publisher.
Name of person posting the video (Year posted) Title. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).
Where do I find all the details I need for my bibliography?
With printed sources, you may need to look in the following places for the information you need:
- Front cover
- Title page
- The back of the title page
- Contents or editorial page if a magazine
- Back page
For online sources it should be a bit easier to find information – but you may need to scroll all the way to the bottom of a page to find full details such as date and author.
Use surname (also known as family name), followed by initials. Where no author / artist is named, use the corporate author, i.e. the organisation responsible for the resource being published. For example Tate, or BBC.
For a book, look for the most recent copyright date, this can be found in the small print, usually a few pages in from the start or end of the book (called the copyright page). If it is a book from the library, look on the library catalogue for the book’s full details, including the date.
Webpages can be particularly difficult when trying to find a publication date. Try scrolling down to the bottom of the webpage to look for the copyright date for the whole site, and use this date instead.
If you still cannot find a date, you can use ‘no date’, e.g. (Tate, no date), but use this option with caution – can you be sure that the information is up-to-date and reliable if no publication or copyright date is given?
If in doubt, ask your librarian!
Try to be consistent with how you use capital letters, and ignore how the source (book/webpage etc.) has used them. Ideally, just the first word is capitalised:
e.g. How the world ended.
e.g. Art and design: a student guide. (note that the subtitle starts with a lower case “a”)
You only need to include this information for books or ebooks which are a 2nd edition or onwards. This is usually clearly printed on the front cover or title page of the book.
Ignore mention of any reprints, these are not revised editions.
Look for the Publisher’s head office address.
If multiple locations (e.g. London, New York, Paris) – include the city most local to you (i.e. London) or just use the first city on the list. You do not need to include the whole list of locations in your reference.
These only appear in your in-text citations, as the whole source (book, ebook, journal etc.) is then referenced in your bibliography.
What should my bibliography look like?
Here’s a sample bibliography – note that all references are listed alphabetically by surname in one long list.